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  • In this month’s

    Unknown author
  • Health and safety in recreational waters

    Giampaoli, Saverio; Spica, Vincenzo Romano
  • Corrigendum

    Unknown author
  • Diarrhoea-related hospitalizations in children before and after implementation of monovalent rotavirus vaccination in Mexico

    Esparza-Aguilar, Marcelino; Gastañaduy, Paul A; Sánchez-Uribe, Edgar; Desai, Rishi; Parashar, Umesh D; Richardson, Vesta; Patel, Manish
  • Economic benefits of keeping vaccines at ambient temperature during mass vaccination: the case of meningitis A vaccine in Chad

    Lydon, Patrick; Zipursky, Simona; Tevi-Benissan, Carole; Djingarey, Mamoudou Harouna; Gbedonou, Placide; Youssouf, Brahim Oumar; Zaffran, Michel
  • A global research agenda for family planning: results of an exercise for setting research priorities

    Ali, Moazzam; Seuc, Armando; Rahimi, Asma; Festin, Mario; Temmerman, Marleen
  • The effect of pore size on cell adhesion in collagen-GAG scaffolds

    O’Brien, F.J.; Harley, B.A.; Yannas, I.V.; Gibson, L.J. (Elsevier, 2005-02)
    The biological activity of scaffolds used in tissue engineering applications hypothetically depends on the density of available ligands, scaffold sites at which specific cell binding occurs. Ligand density is characterized by the composition of the scaffold, which defines the surface density of ligands, and by the specific surface area of the scaffold, which defines the total surface of the structure exposed to the cells. It has been previously shown that collagen–glycosaminoglycan (CG) scaffolds used for studies of skin regeneration were inactive when the mean pore size was either lower than 20 μm or higher than 120 μm (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., USA 86(3) (1989) 933). To study the relationship between cell attachment and viability in scaffolds and the scaffold structure, CG scaffolds with a constant composition and solid volume fraction (0.005), but with four different pore sizes corresponding to four levels of specific surface area were manufactured using a lyophilization technique. MC3T3-E1 mouse clonal osteogenic cells were seeded onto the four scaffold types and maintained in culture. At the experimental end point (24 or 48 h), the remaining viable cells were counted to determine the percent cell attachment. A significant difference in viable cell attachment was observed in scaffolds with different mean pore sizes after 24 and 48 h; however, there was no significant change in cell attachment between 24 and 48 h for any group. The fraction of viable cells attached to the CG scaffold decreased with increasing mean pore size, increasing linearly (R2=0.95, 0.91 at 24 and 48 h, respectively) with the specific surface area of the scaffold. The strong correlation between the scaffold specific surface area and cell attachment indicates that cell attachment and viability are primarily influenced by scaffold specific surface area over this range (95.9–150.5 μm) of pore sizes for MC3T3 cells.
  • Activity at the Michigan Cyber Range

    Adams, Joe
    Joe Adams will update a number of Cyber Range activities, including its use in academic courses, a new set of Range hardware at Northern Michigan University, and a Red Team/Blue Team exercise recently conducted in Grand Rapids and Ann Arbor.
  • Interspecies differences in cancer susceptibility and toxicity.

    Hengstler, J G; Van der Burg, B; Steinberg, P; Oesch, F (1999-11-01)
    One of the most complex challenges to the toxicologist represents extrapolation from laboratory animals to humans. In this article, we review interspecies differences in metabolism and toxicity of heterocyclic amines, aflatoxin B1, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), and related compounds, endocrine disrupters, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, tamoxifen, and digitoxin. As far as possible, extrapolations to human toxicity and carcinogenicity are performed. Humans may be more susceptible to the carcinogenic effect of heterocyclic amines than monkeys, rats, and mice. Especially, individuals with high CYP1A2 and 3A4 activities and the rapid acetylator phenotype may be expected to have an increased risk. Striking interspecies variation in susceptibility to aflatoxin B1 carcinogenesis is known, with rats representing the most sensitive and mice the most resistant species, refractory to dietary levels three orders of magnitude higher than rats. An efficient conjugation with glutathione, catalyzed by glutathione S-transferase mYc, confers aflatoxin B1 resistance to mice. Extremely large interspecies differences in TCDD-induced toxicity are known. The guinea pig is the most susceptible mammal known, with an LD50 in the range 1-2 micrograms TCDD/kg, whereas the hamster is the most resistant species with an LD50 greater than 3000 micrograms/kg. A number of experts have pointed out to the fact that humans appear to be less sensitive to TCDD than most laboratory animals. Human exposure to background levels of TCDD is not likely to cause an incremental cancer risk. A clear cause--effect relationship has been shown between environmental endocrine-disrupting contaminants and adverse health effects in wildlife, whereas the effects seem to be less critical for humans. Studies on DNA adduct formation and metabolism of the nonsteroidal antiestrogen tamoxifen indicate that rats and mice are orders of magnitude more susceptible than humans.
  • Metadata interoperability in agricultural learning repositories: An analysis

    Nikos, Manouselis (2010-03-01)
    The rapid evolution of ICT creates numerous opportunities for agricultural education and training. Digital learning resources are organized in online databases called learning repositories, in which people can search, locate, and access resources. In order to facilitate the exchange of information between such repositories, the issue of metadata interoperability is crucial. In this paper, we particularly focus on metadata interoperability of learning repositories with content relevant to agricultural stakeholders. More specifically, we present results from an analysis of implementations of metadata standards in agricultural learning repositories around the world. The results provide useful feedback to the developers of repositories with educational content for agricultural stakeholders, as well as directions for potential harmonization of work in this area.
  • Issues and considerations regarding sharable data sets for recommender systems in technology enhanced learning

    Hendrik, Drachsler (2010-01-01)
    This paper raises the issue of missing data sets for recommender systems in Technology Enhanced Learning that can be used as benchmarks to compare different recommendation approaches. It discusses how suitable data sets could be created according to some initial suggestions, and investigates a number of steps that may be followed in order to develop reference data sets that will be adopted and reused within a scientific community. In addition, policies are discussed that are needed to enhance sharing of data sets by taking into account legal protection rights. Finally, an initial elaboration of a representation and exchange format for sharable TEL data sets is carried out. The paper concludes with future research needs.

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