• Exploring ePortfolios and weblogs as learning narratives in a community of new teachers.

      Hughes, Julie (International Society for Teacher Education, 200)
      Drawing upon student narratives, the author explores the extent to which a Post Graduate Certificate in Education (PGCE) teaching community at the University of Wolverhampton in the United Kingdom (UK), developed an approach to the process and product of e-portfolio which optimised the concrete outcomes required by external professional bodies, while harnessing the technology's potential for promoting collaboration and discursive reflection.
    • Aggregation in temporal databases

      Kline, Rodger Nickels; Kline, Rodger Nickels (The University of Arizona.The University of Arizona., 19991999)
      Temporal database systems extend relational database systems to support time-varying information. One important such extension is support for time-varying aggregate functions, such as a time-varying average. Our research will show that temporal aggregates may be specified in a semantically well defined manner yet be efficiently implemented as simple extensions to relational databases. We introduce a taxonomy of temporal aggregation, based on a study of all major temporal query languages containing aggregates. The taxonomy categorizes the expressiveness and functionality of temporal aggregation. Based on this taxonomy, we introduce extensions to TSQL2 for temporal aggregation. The proposed language constructs allow one to express the variety of features identified in the taxonomy. We briefly discuss the semantics for the temporal aggregate language extension. We introduce an operator for evaluating temporal aggregates in a temporal relational algebra; the operator was designed to implement the tuple semantics. We show that theoretically, the most efficient evaluation of a temporal aggregate over a relation with n unique timestamps requires Θ(n log n) time, with O(n log n) space in any decision tree algorithm. We provide an example algorithm meeting these requirements, utilizing a 2-3 tree. Based on the requirements for evaluation of the algebraic operator, we introduce a series of main memory algorithms for evaluating temporal aggregates, including the aggregation tree, k-ordered aggregation tree, the chalkboard algorithm, the linked-list algorithm, and show how to perform aggregation using a 2-3 tree. The algorithms exhibit different applicability depending on aspects of the input relation, including sort order, percentage of long-lived tuples, and number of tuples. We also provide an algorithm which executes using only a user-limited amount of memory, the paging aggregation tree. We characterize the effectiveness of these algorithms based on an empirical study of their performance.
    • Facilitating interoperability among heterogeneous geographic database systems: A theoretical framework, a prototype system, and evaluation

      Park, Jinsoo (The University of Arizona., 1999)
      The objective of this research is to develop a formal semantic model, theoretical framework and methodology to facilitate interoperability among distributed and heterogeneous geographic database systems (GDSs). The primary research question is how to identify and resolve various data- and schematic-level conflicts among such information sources. Set theory is used to formalize the semantic model, which supports explicit modeling of the complex nature of geographic data objects. The semantic model is used as a canonical model for conceptual schema design and integration. The intension (including structure, integrity rules and meta-properties) of the database schema is captured in the semantic model. A comprehensive framework classifying various semantic conflicts is proposed. This framework is then used as a basis for automating the detection and resolution of semantic conflicts among heterogeneous databases. A methodology for conflict detection and resolution is proposed to develop interoperable system environment. The methodology is based on the concept of a "mediator." Several types of semantic mediators are defined and developed to achieve interoperability. An ontology is developed to capture various semantic conflicts. The metadata and ontology are stored in a common repository and manipulated by description logic-based operators. A query processing technique is developed to provide uniform and integrated access to the multiple heterogeneous databases. Logic is employed to formalize our methodology, which provides a unified view of the underlying representational and reasoning formalism for the semantic mediation process. A usable prototype system is implemented to provide proof of the concept underlying this work. The system has been integrated with the Internet and can be accessed through any Java-enabled web browser. Finally, the usefulness of our methodology and the system is evaluated using three different cases that represent different application domains. Various heterogeneous geospatial datasets and non-geographic datasets are used during the evaluation phase. The results of the evaluation suggest that correct identification and construction of both schema and ontology-schema mapping knowledge play very important roles in achieving interoperability at the both data and schema levels. The research adopts a multi-methodological approach that incorporates set theory, logic, prototyping, and case study.
    • Interspecies differences in cancer susceptibility and toxicity.

      Hengstler, J G; Van der Burg, B; Steinberg, P; Oesch, F (1999-11-01)
      One of the most complex challenges to the toxicologist represents extrapolation from laboratory animals to humans. In this article, we review interspecies differences in metabolism and toxicity of heterocyclic amines, aflatoxin B1, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), and related compounds, endocrine disrupters, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, tamoxifen, and digitoxin. As far as possible, extrapolations to human toxicity and carcinogenicity are performed. Humans may be more susceptible to the carcinogenic effect of heterocyclic amines than monkeys, rats, and mice. Especially, individuals with high CYP1A2 and 3A4 activities and the rapid acetylator phenotype may be expected to have an increased risk. Striking interspecies variation in susceptibility to aflatoxin B1 carcinogenesis is known, with rats representing the most sensitive and mice the most resistant species, refractory to dietary levels three orders of magnitude higher than rats. An efficient conjugation with glutathione, catalyzed by glutathione S-transferase mYc, confers aflatoxin B1 resistance to mice. Extremely large interspecies differences in TCDD-induced toxicity are known. The guinea pig is the most susceptible mammal known, with an LD50 in the range 1-2 micrograms TCDD/kg, whereas the hamster is the most resistant species with an LD50 greater than 3000 micrograms/kg. A number of experts have pointed out to the fact that humans appear to be less sensitive to TCDD than most laboratory animals. Human exposure to background levels of TCDD is not likely to cause an incremental cancer risk. A clear cause--effect relationship has been shown between environmental endocrine-disrupting contaminants and adverse health effects in wildlife, whereas the effects seem to be less critical for humans. Studies on DNA adduct formation and metabolism of the nonsteroidal antiestrogen tamoxifen indicate that rats and mice are orders of magnitude more susceptible than humans.
    • War in the Air 1903-1939

      Buckley, John (Sutton Publishing Ltd., 2000)
      This book: The history of 20th century warfare, from the strategies and tactics of World War One that had changed little since the Napoleonic Wars some one hundred years earlier, to the dawn of a new millenium where air power and advanced technology play a vital role in shaping future conflicts.
    • MuTaTeD’ll A System for Music Information Retrieval of Encoded Music

      Boehm, Carola (Library and Information Commission, 2001)
      This is the final publication of the results of the project “MuTaTed’II”, A system for Information Retrieval of Encoded Music”. The aim of the project was to design and implement an information retrieval system with delivery/access services for digital music and sound. The project was documented and the results presented at various conferences; (ICMC 2000 Berlin, ISMI 2000 Massachusetts, Euromicro 2000 Amsterdam).
    • CIRCUS for Beginners

      Boehm, Carola; Patterson, John (2001)
      This paper describes “Content Integrated Research in Creative User Systems” (CIRCUS), a working group of the ESPRIT programme of the European Union; describing its origins, its main concerns, and viewing some of its conclusions. The paper examines the distinction between the practice-based art and design community and the more knowledge-based computer technology community. The CIRCUS research agenda has been led by the concept of creative pull, a concept which gives priority, even control, to the creative maker or user in the development of technological capability. The paper examines the working group and its focus on this concept and how to support it through technological means.
    • Developing the information skills agenda

      Ordidge, Irene (University of Wolverhampton, 2001)
      Technological advances by the database creators of the late 60’s and early 70’s enabled the ‘information explosion’ to be managed and accessed. Information professionals developed specialist skills to explore these bibliographic resources on-line. A decade later, as attitudes changed and resources became more accessible, a parallel agenda of user education programmes was being developed by librarians. The information skills agenda took shape across schools, colleges and Higher Education institutions and a skills hand-over began. The curriculum focussed on access to print resources initially to support the shift to resource-based and flexible learning initiatives. The rapid developments in desktop information technology in the late 80’s and 90’s brought the two developments closer together. It enabled information professionals, already supporting the development of user information skills, to include access to bibliographic databases and electronic resources on CD-ROM and on-line.
    • The impact of information skills training on student learning: do we make a difference?

      Pritchard, Oliver (University of Wolverhampton, 2001)
      Report of a CELT project on changing practice through innovation and research
    • Web impact factors and search engine coverage

      Thelwall, Mike (MCB UP Ltd, 2002)
      Search engines index only a proportion of the web and this proportion is not determined randomly but by following algorithms that take into account the properties that impact factors measure. A survey was conducted in order to test the coverage of search engines and to decide whether their partial coverage is indeed an obstacle to using them to calculate web impact factors. The results indicate that search engine coverage, even of large national domains is extremely uneven and would be likely to lead to misleading calculations.
    • Refined Salience Weighting and Error Analysis in Anaphora Resolution.

      Evans, Richard (The Research Group in Computational Linguistics, 2002)
      In this paper, the behaviour of an existing pronominal anaphora resolution system is modified so that different types of pronoun are treated in different ways. Weights are derived using a In genetic algorithm for the outcomes of tests applied by this branching algorithm. Detailed evaluation and error analysis is undertaken. Proposals for future research are put forward.
    • Bovine enterovirus as an oncolytic virus: foetal calf serum facilitates its infection of human cells.

      Smyth, M; Symonds, A; Brazinova, S; Martin, J; Molecular Structure Solutions, MA Block, Wolverhampton, UK. (2002-07)
      Many viruses have been investigated for their oncolytic properties and potential use as therapeutic agents for cancer treatment. Most of these replication-competent viruses are human pathogens. We investigated the oncolytic properties of an animal virus which is non pathogenic for both its natural host and humans. Bovine enterovirus has previously been shown to exhibit a very wide tissue tropism for cell types in vitro. We compare the ability of bovine enterovirus to replicate in and to cause cytopathic effect in freshly isolated human monocytes and monocyte derived macrophages with the monocyte-like U937 tumour cell line. We also include the adherent ZR-75-1 human breast cancer cell line. We have also carried out infections of bovine enterovirus in the presence and in the absence of serum of bovine origin. Our study shows that the virus will replicate in and produce cytopathic effect in the U937 and ZR-75-1 cell types to the same extent as the cells (BHK-21) in which the virus is routinely propagated. We believe bovine enterovirus to be a worthwhile candidate for further study as an anti-tumour agent.
    • Indexing and path query processing for XML data

      Li, Quanzhong (The University of Arizona., 2004)
      XML has emerged as a new standard for information representation and exchange on the Internet. To efficiently process XML data, we propose the extended preorder numbering scheme, which determines the ancestor-descendant relationship between nodes in the hierarchy of XML data in constant time, and adapts to the dynamics of XML data by allocating extra space. Based on this numbering scheme, we propose sort-merge based algorithms, εA-Join and εε-Join, to process ancestor-descendant path expressions. The experimental results showed an order of magnitude performance improvement over conventional methods. We further propose the partition-based algorithms, which can be chosen by a query optimizer according to the characteristics of the input data. For complex path expressions with branches, we propose the Containment B⁺-tree (CB-tree) index and the IndexTwig algorithm. The CB-tree, which is an extension of the B⁺-tree, supports both the containment query and the reverse containment query. It is an effective indexing scheme for XML documents with or without a small number of recursions. The proposed IndexTwig algorithm works with any index supporting containment and reverse containment queries, such as the CB-tree. We also introduce a simplified output model, which outputs only the necessary result of a path expression. The output model enables the Fast Existence Test (FET) optimization to skip unnecessary data and avoid generating unwanted results. Also in this dissertation, we introduce techniques to process the predicates in XML path expressions using the EVR-tree. The EVR-tree combines the advantages of indexing on values or elements individually using B+-trees. It utilizes the high value selectivity and/or high structural selectivity, and provides ordered element access by using a priority queue. At the end of the dissertation, we introduce the XISS/R system, which is an implementation of the XML Indexing and Storage System (XISS) on top of a relational database. The XISS/R includes a web-based user interface and a XPath query engine to translate XPath queries into efficient SQL statements.
    • An interactive speech interface for virtual characters in dynamic environments

      Mehdi, Qasim; Zeng, Xin; Gough, Norman (2004)
      In this paper, we propose a new improvement to our 3D Virtual Story Environment System (3DVSE) by adding a real-time animation with voice synthesis. The new system offers a flexible and easy way to generate an interactive 3D virtual Environment (3DVE) as compared to traditional 3D packages. It enables the user to control and interact with the virtual characters via speech instructions so that the characters can respond to the commands in real time. This system has the potential, if combined with artificial intelligence, to act as a dialogue interface for believable agents that have many applications such as computer games, and intelligent multimedia applications. In this system, the agent can talk and listen to fellow agents and human users.
    • Evidence of nationalistic bias in MuayThai

      Myers, Tony D.; Balmer, Nigel J.; Nevill, Alan M.; Thailand (Asist Group, 2006)
      MuayThai is a combat sport with a growing international profile but limited research conducted into judging practices and processes. Problems with judging of other subjectively judged combat sports have caused controversy at major international tournaments that have resulted in changes to scoring methods. Nationalistic bias has been central to these problems and has been identified across a range of sports. The aim of this study was to examine nationalistic bias in MuayThai. Data were collected from the International Federation of MuayThai Amateur (IFMA) World Championships held in Almaty, Kazakhstan September 2003 and comprised of tournament results from 70 A-class MuayThai bouts each judged by between five and nine judges. Bouts examined featured 62 competitors from 21 countries and 25 judges from 11 countries. Results suggested that nationalistic bias was evident. The bias observed equated to approximately one round difference between opposing judges over the course of a bout (a mean of 1.09 (SE=0.50) points difference between judges with opposing affilations). The number of neutral judges used meant that this level of bias generally did not influence the outcome of bouts. Future research should explore other ingroup biases, such as nearest neighbor bias and political bias as well as investigating the feasibility adopting an electronic scoring system.
    • The effect of substrate on the reproducibility of inked fingerprint pore dimensions examined using photomicrography.

      Gupta, Abhishek; Buckley, K.A.; Sutton, Raul (The Fingerprint Society, 2007)
      Requests for back issues or copies of articles should be made to The Archivist at The Fingerprint Society.
    • A High Precision Information Retrieval Method for WiQA

      Orasan, Constantin; Puşcaşu, Georgiana (Springer, 2007)
      This paper presents Wolverhampton University’s participation in the WiQA competition. The method chosen for this task combines a high precision, but low recall information retrieval approach with a greedy sentence ranking algorithm. The high precision retrieval is ensured by querying the search engine with the exact topic, in this way obtaining only sentences which contain the topic. In one of the runs, the set of retrieved sentences is expanded using coreferential relations between sentences. The greedy algorithm used for ranking selects one sentence at a time, always the one which adds most information to the set of sentences without repeating the existing information too much. The evaluation revealed that it achieves a performance similar to other systems participating in the competition and that the run which uses coreference obtains the highest MRR score among all the participants.