• Evidence of nationalistic bias in MuayThai

      Myers, Tony D.; Balmer, Nigel J.; Nevill, Alan M.; Thailand (Asist Group, 2006)
      MuayThai is a combat sport with a growing international profile but limited research conducted into judging practices and processes. Problems with judging of other subjectively judged combat sports have caused controversy at major international tournaments that have resulted in changes to scoring methods. Nationalistic bias has been central to these problems and has been identified across a range of sports. The aim of this study was to examine nationalistic bias in MuayThai. Data were collected from the International Federation of MuayThai Amateur (IFMA) World Championships held in Almaty, Kazakhstan September 2003 and comprised of tournament results from 70 A-class MuayThai bouts each judged by between five and nine judges. Bouts examined featured 62 competitors from 21 countries and 25 judges from 11 countries. Results suggested that nationalistic bias was evident. The bias observed equated to approximately one round difference between opposing judges over the course of a bout (a mean of 1.09 (SE=0.50) points difference between judges with opposing affilations). The number of neutral judges used meant that this level of bias generally did not influence the outcome of bouts. Future research should explore other ingroup biases, such as nearest neighbor bias and political bias as well as investigating the feasibility adopting an electronic scoring system.
    • Mitoparans: mitochondriotoxic cell penetrating peptides and novel inducers of apoptosis.

      Jones, Sarah; Martel, Cecile; Belzacq-Casagrande, Anne-Sophie; Brenner, Catherine; Brenner, Catherine (Australian Peptide Association, 2007)
      Introduction: The amphipathic helical peptide mastoparan (MP; H-INLKALAALAKKIL-NH2) inserts into biological membranes to modulate the activity of heterotrimeric G proteins and other targets. Moreover, whilst cell free models of apoptosis demonstrate MP to facilitate mitochondrial permeability transition and release of apoptogenic cytochrome c, MP-induced death of intact cells has been attributed to its non-specific membrane destabilising properties (necrotic mechanisms). However, MP and related peptides are known to activate other signalling systems, including p42/p44 MAP kinases and could therefore, also modulate cell fate and specific apoptotic events. The ability of MP to facilitate mitochondrial permeability in cell free systems has lead to proposals that MP could be of utility in tumour therapeutics provided that it conferred features of cellular penetration and mitochondrial localization. We have recently reported that our highly potent amphipathic MP analogue mitoparan (mitP; [Lys5,8Aib10]MP; Aib = -aminoisobutyric acid) specifically promotes apoptosis of human cancer cells, as was confirmed by in situ TUNEL staining and activation of caspase-3. Moreover, we have also demonstrated that mitP penetrates plasma membranes and redistributes to co-localize with mitochondria. Complementary studies, using isolated mitochondria, further demonstrated that mitP, through co-operation with a protein of the permeability transition pore complex voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), induced swelling and permeabilization of mitochondria, leading to the release of the apoptogenic factor cytochrome c. An expanding field of peptide and cell penetrating peptide (CPP) research has focussed on the selective targeting of tumours by engineering constructs that incorporate cell-specific or tissue–specific address motifs. Peptidyl address motifs could enhance the selectivity of drug delivery whilst the improved cellular uptake offered by CPP enhances bioavailability. Thus and as a potential therapeutic strategy, we extended our findings to design target-specific mitP analogues. The integrin-specific address motif RGD and a Fas ligand mimetic WEWT were incorporated by N-terminal acylation of mitP to produce novel tandem-linked chimeric peptides.
    • Identification and biological applications of rhegnylogically-organized cell penetrating peptides.

      Howl, John D.; Jones, Sarah (Australian Peptide Association, 2007)
      Introduction: Many different cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) have been utilized as vectors to affect the highly efficient intracellular delivery of bioactive moieties. A majority of such studies employ sychnologically-organized tandem combinations of a cargo (message) and a CPP (address). To date, bioactive cargoes have included peptides, proteins and a range of oligonucleotides attached either by direct chemical conjugation or as a component of a larger macromolecular complex. Moreover, a majority of CPPs, including the commonly used sequences Tat and penetratin, are designed to be both biologically and toxicologically inert. More recently, a QSAR-based algorithm has been developed to predict cryptic polycationic CPP motifs within the primary sequences of proteins. As described here, this novel technology has enabled the study of rhegnylogic CPPs in which multiple pharmacophores for cellular penetration and desirable biological activities are discontinuously organized within the primary sequence of single peptide. This organization differs from the more commonly utilized sychnologic strategy which joins functionally discrete and continous address and messages together in a tandem construct.
    • Adjusting bone mass for differences in projected bone area and other confounding variables: an allometric perspective.

      Nevill, Alan M.; Holder, Roger L. (American Society for Bone and Mineral Research, 2007-01-25)
      The traditional method of assessing bone mineral density (BMD; given by bone mineral content [BMC] divided by projected bone area [Ap], BMD = BMC/Ap) has come under strong criticism by various authors. Their criticism being that the projected bone "area" (Ap) will systematically underestimate the skeletal bone "volume" of taller subjects. To reduce the confounding effects of bone size, an alternative ratio has been proposed called bone mineral apparent density [BMAD = BMC/(Ap)3/2]. However, bone size is not the only confounding variable associated with BMC. Others include age, sex, body size, and maturation. To assess the dimensional relationship between BMC and projected bone area, independent of other confounding variables, we proposed and fitted a proportional allometric model to the BMC data of the L2-L4 vertebrae from a previously published study. The projected bone area exponents were greater than unity for both boys (1.43) and girls (1.02), but only the boy's fitted exponent was not different from that predicted by geometric similarity (1.5). Based on these exponents, it is not clear whether bone mass acquisition increases in proportion to the projected bone area (Ap) or an estimate of projected bone volume (Ap)3/2. However, by adopting the proposed methods, the analysis will automatically adjust BMC for differences in projected bone size and other confounding variables for the particular population being studied. Hence, the necessity to speculate as to the theoretical value of the exponent of Ap, although interesting, becomes redundant.
    • Looking beyond the visible: contesting environmental agendas for Mumbai slums

      Abbott, Dina; Department of Development Geography, University of Derby (Oxford University Press, 2009)
      Slums are the most immediate, visible symbols of poverty and environmental degra-dation intertwined in cities. They are a constant reminder of national shame and the state’s incapacity or political will to tackle poverty. In cities where the poor and rich share spaces, the rich will attempt to mentally and morally distance themselves from the slums, often regarding these as eyesores, health hazards, and dens of corruption and immoral behaviour. Yet slums are home to millions, from single householders to intergenerational extended families. Within each slum locality, there is intense social networking to safe¬guard common interest, provide informal services for neighbours and enhance the ability to carry out livelihood opportunities. There is a clear contrast in the way slums are regarded by ‘outsiders’, and those who actually live there. Equally there is a difference in which both outsiders and slum dwellers understand environmental needs. A key question for this chapter is, therefore, what is the contested nature of environ-mental agendas in urban areas and who or what defines it? This chapter draws on Mumbai as an example to argue that within shared spaces, whilst there may be commonality of environmental interests, environmental agendas are often shaped by those who are more powerful and vocal.
    • The lived experience of climate change´: creating open educational resources and virtual mobility for an innovative, integrative and competence-based track at Masters level

      Abbott, Dina; Wilson, Gordon; Pérez, P.; Willems, P.; Academics from EU universities: see paper for full affliations (Inderscience Publishers, 2012-05-29)
      This paper explores a new integrative approach to climate change education at Masters level. Drawing on the authors’ involvement in a European Union Erasmus project, it is argued that the diversity of knowledge(s) on climate change are a source of active/social learning. The wide variety of disciplinary, sectoral and lived experiential (both individual and collective) knowledge(s) are all considered legitimate in this exercise, the aim of which is to construct new interdisciplinary knowledge from their boundary interfaces. We further argue for a corresponding pedagogy based on developing transboundary competences – the ability to engage in social learning and action through communicative engagement across knowledge boundaries. We acknowledge that the challenges for enacting transboundary competence are considerable when it requires mobility across epistemological, even ontological, boundaries. The challenges are further compounded when the communicative engagement across space and time requires virtual mobility which is ICT-enabled. Nevertheless, meeting them is a normative goal, not only for this expanded, integrative approach to climate change education, but also for a global resolution of climate change itself.
    • Field geographies

      Abbott, Dina; University Reader in Development Geography, University of Derby (Elsevier, 2012-05-29)
      Epistemological discourses such as those that have emerged from women’s studies (particularly feminism) and development studies have, however, shown geographers that there is a need to challenge the power assumptions embedded in the whole process of research, including methodological choices that can include or exclude. By tracing these discourses and using examples from these two disciplines, this article demonstrates how contemporary geography has taken on board some of the new methodological approaches that have thus transpired. In turn, this has enriched geographical enquiry, which is now, much as the subject itself, seen as a social construct requiring critical reflection and challenge.
    • Association of physical inactivity with increased cardiovascular risk in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

      Metsios, Giorgos S.; Stavropoulos-Kalinoglou, Antonios; Panoulas, Vasileios F.; Wilson, Mat; Nevill, Alan M.; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Kitas, George D. (2013-06-27)
    • Sleep Profiles and Mood States During an Expedition to the South Pole

      Pedlar, Charles R.; Lane, Andrew M.; Lloyd, Juliette C.; Dawson, Jean; Emegbo, Stephen; Whyte, Gregory P.; Stanley, Neil (2013-06-27)
    • Development management as reflective practice

      Abbott, Dina; Brown, Suzanne; Wilson, Gordon (2013-06-27)
    • Modeling longitudinal changes in maximal-intensity exercise performance in young male rowing athletes.

      Mikulic, Pavle; Blazina, Tomislav; Nevill, Alan M.; Markovic, Goran (Human Kinetics, 2013-06-27)
      he purpose of the current study was to examine the effect of age and body size upon maximal-intensity exercise performance in young rowing athletes. Male participants (n = 171) aged 12-18 years were assessed using an "all-out" 30-s rowing ergometer test, and reassessed after 12 months. The highest rate of performance development, which amounts to [mean(SD)] +34%(23%) and +32%(23%) for mean and maximal power output, respectively, is observed between the ages of 12 and 13, while this rate of development gradually declines as the athletes mature through adolescence. Performance increases with body size, and mass, stature and chronological age all proved to be significant (all p < .05) explanatory variables of mean power output, with respective exponents [mean(SE)] of 0.56(0.08), 1.84(0.30) and 0.07(0.01), and of maximal power output, with respective exponents of 0.54(0.09), 1.76(0.32) and 0.06(0.01). These findings may help coaches better understand the progression of rowing performance during adolescence.