• Economic Analysis of the Impact of Climate Change on Agriculture in Russia

      Safonov, Georgiy; Safonova, Yulia (BioMed Central, 01/04/2013)
      Climate Change
    • Generation of Human Antigen-Specific Monoclonal IgM Antibodies Using Vaccinated “Human Immune System” Mice

      Becker, Pablo D.; Legrand, Nicolas; van Geelen, Caroline M. M.; Noerder, Miriam; Huntington, Nicholas D.; Lim, Annick; Yasuda, Etsuko; Diehl, Sean A.; Scheeren, Ferenc A.; Ott, Michael; et al. (01/08/2013)
    • A Little Gender Handbook for Emergencies or Just Plain Common Sense

      Clifton, Deborah (01/11/1999)
      Oxfam believes that equality is most effectively approached by changing the unequal relations of men and women to one another. Emergency response is always conducted with the long-term goal of gender equality in mind. Recognising and responding to gender differences is an important step in improving the quality of emergency aid and 'The The Little Gender Handbook for Emergencies' includes a number of helpful checklists for conducting a gender-aware response.
    • Climate Change Liability: Transnational law and practice

      Lord, Richard; Goldberg, Silke; Rajamani, Lavanya; Brunnee, Jutta (Cambridge University Press, 03/12/2011)
      As frustration mounts in some quarters at the perceived inadequacy or speed of international action on climate change and as the likelihood of significant impacts grows, the focus is increasingly turning to liability for climate change damage. Actual or potential climate change liability implicates a growing range of actors, including governments, industry, businesses, non-governmental organisations, individuals and legal practitioners. Climate Change Liability provides an objective, rigorous and accessible overview of the existing law and the direction it might take in seventeen developed and developing countries and the European Union. In some jurisdictions, the applicable law is less developed and less the subject of current debate. In others, actions for various kinds of climate change liability have already been brought, including high profile cases such as Massachusetts vs. Environmental Protection Agency in the United States. Each chapter explores the potential for and barriers to climate change liability in private and public law. For more information or to purchase a copy of this book online, go to www.cambridge.org/climateliability/. Cambridge University Press also has a microsite on climate change featuring a number of their titles: http://www.cambridge.org/features/climatechange/
    • Managing Price Risk in Local Food Reserves: Analysing the prospects for a stabilisation fund in Mali and Niger

      Alba, Martin; Serra, Teresa; Gil, José María (Oxfam International, 05/07/2013)
      Local food reserves can contribute to food security strategies and have the potential to empower communities. These collective initiatives are set up and owned by small-scale producers with the objective of increasing the availability and access to food, or of increasing income by managing the food-price cycle. But the rate of failure among local food reserves is high, largely as a result of climate and price risks, coupled with challenges linked to their design, planning and management This research report analyses the possibility of developing a stabilisation fund as an effective price risk management tool to help local food reserves overcome their vulnerability to price cycle inversions. Four scenarios were considered and modelled on the basis of price data in a series of 12 cereal markets in Mali and Niger over a 15-year time span. The report concludes that the type of stabilisation fund outlined could represent a viable way of managing price risk in countries where the option of using market-based tools to tackle price risk is not available.
    • Extreme Weather Events and Crop Price Spikes in a Changing Climate: Illustrative global simulation scenarios

      Willenbockel, Dirk (Oxfam International, 05/09/2012)
      Agriculture is highly sensitive to climate variability and weather extremes. Various impact studies have considered the effects of projected long-run trends in temperature, precipitation and CO2 concentrations caused by climate change on global food production and prices. But an area that remains underexplored is the food price impacts that may result from an expected increase in the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events. This study uses a global dynamic multi-region computable general equilibrium (CGE) model to explore the potential food price impacts of a number of extreme weather event scenarios in 2030 for each of the main exporting regions for rice, maize and wheat.
    • Managing Water Locally: An essential dimension of community water development

      Bunclark, Lisa; Carter, Richard; Casey, Vincent; Day, St John; Guthrie, Daphne (Oxfam GB, 08/11/2011)
      Communities are frequently excluded from important aspects of environmental management. But they can play a fundamental role in the management of common pool resources such as water. This is particularly true when state capacity is weak or when communities remain on the periphery of support from any government. Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) has been widely promoted over the last two decades as a solution for nations’ resources. Yet, managing water resources at a global or state level can be over-ambitious and unrealistic, particularly when many developing countries have weak regulating institutions and limited technical and financial capacity. There is a need to redefine the mechanism for water resource management – giving greater respect to the needs, priorities and possibilities of different countries and contexts. There is potential to develop creative and realistic options for water resource management, particularly at local geographical scales, involving water users. This report explores how local water resources can be managed successfully by community-based institutions in support of state-level initiatives, where they exist. It follows 12 months of close collaboration between the Institute of Civil Engineers, Oxfam GB and WaterAid, who are jointly promoting Community-Based Water Resource Management. ‘...the potential for monitoring and managing water resources at local or community level should be better acknowledged. In particular, traditional water management practices must be recognised and used as a foundation for the development of future water management strategies.’ Sir Crispin Tickell.
    • Fertile Ground

      Ponder, Val (12/10/2012)
      Farming in the UK continues to experience challenges. The pressure to increase efficiency, whilst input costs rise and policies and support structures change, lead many farmers to question how their farms will fit into the farming sector of tomorrow. The National Farmers Network - an Oxfam partner - supports low income farmers all over the UK to improve the sustainability of their farming businesses, mainly through encouraging collaboration between farmers. This publication highlights good practice in the work of farmers with community-led support organisations around the UK.
    • Digitoxin metabolism by rat liver microsomes.

      Schmoldt, A; Benthe, H F; Haberland, G; Sanchez, G; Alderete, J F; Bridgewater, S; Camp, H M; Hendrickson, W A; Ward, K B; Galliard, T; et al. (1975-09-01)
      1. Crude extracts and partially purified enzyme preparations from potato tubers catalyse, at pH 5-7, the conversion of linoleic acid hydroperoxides to a range of oxygenated fatty acid derivatives. 2. 9-D- and 13-L-hydroperoxide isomers are converted at similar rates to equivalent (isomeric) products. 3. The major products from the 13-hydroperoxide isomer were identified as the corresponding monohydroxydienoic acid derivative, threo-11-hydroxy-trans12,13-epoxy-octadec-cis9-enoic acid and 9,12,13-trihydroxy-octadec-trans10-enoic acid. The corresponding products from the 9-hydroperoxide were the monohydroxydienoic acid, 9,10-epoxy-11-hydroxy-octadec-12-enoic acid and 9,10,13-trihydroxy-octadec-11-enoic acid. 4. No separation of activities forming the different products was achieved by partial purification of enzyme extracts. 5. Product formation was unaffected by EDTA, CN-, sulphydryl reagents or glutathione but was reduced by boiling the extracts. 6. This system is compared with the 9-hydroperoxide-specific enzymic formation of divinyl ether derivatives by potato extracts.
    • Coagulation and Disinfection Manual

      Oxfam GB, 2003-09-15
      This manual is part of a series of guides devised by the Oxfam Public Health Engineering Team to help provide a reliable water supply for populations affected by conflict or natural disaster. The equipment is designed to be used with any or all of the following Oxfam water equipment: Water Pumping equipment, Water Storage equipment, Water Filtration equipment, Water Distribution equipment, Hand-dug Well equipment, and Water Testing Kit. All are designed using available, easily transported equipment which is simple, rapidly assembled, and fully self-contained, to provide an adequate, safe water supply at moderate cost. The principles used in these packages may often be useful in long-term development projects.
    • Malaria Control Manual

      Oxfam GB, 2006-04-25
      This manual is meant for all Oxfam staff who may be involved in initiating a malaria control project in humanitarian situations specifically although much of the background information will be useful for longer term programmes. Knowledge of malaria control is important for Public Health Promoters, Water and Sanitation Engineers and Project Co-ordinators and Managers in order to facilitate decision-making and project formulations.
    • Women, Communities and Mining: The gender impacts of mining and the role of gender impact assessment

      Hill, Christina; Newell, Kelly (Oxfam Australia, 2009-12-01)
      This report informs mining company staff of the potential gender impacts of mining projects and introduces some tools and approaches that they can use to conduct a gender impact assessment of these projects. These tools should be of particular interest to community relations advisors as they are designed to help incorporate gender into community assessment and planning tools including social baseline studies, social impact assessments and risk analysis, community mapping exercises, and monitoring and evaluation plans.
    • Post-Earthquake Response and Reconstruction: Gender-sensitive advocacy in Indonesia

      Harvey, Claire; Smyth, Ines (Oxfam GB, 2010-10-08)
      Around one million Indonesians are affected by natural disasters every year. Despite significant government investment in early warning systems and disaster management, the impact of the 2009 earthquake in West Sumatra showed that much more needs to be done. Oxfam's post-earthquake advocacy work aimed to build understanding of how gender inequality shapes vulnerability and to promote women's participation in designing the emergency response.
    • Review of Humanitarian Advocacy in Liberia and Ivory Coast during the Ivorian Crisis

      Jones, Brandy; Diouf, Alexandre (Oxfam GB, 2011-12-01)
      This report is part of learning activities undertaken by Oxfam’s West Africa Regional Office in order to improve the way that it conducts future advocacy campaigns during humanitarian crises in the region. Oxfam implemented an advocacy program in both Ivory Coast and Liberia. In both countries the advocacy work addressed the aftermath of the post-electoral crisis in Ivory Coast. In response to this crisis, Oxfam launched an ambitious campaign to strengthen the humanitarian response by addressing the needs of the hundreds of thousands of displaced people and those threatened by the fallout from the political conflict in the Ivory Coast. Oxfam’s role during the crisis was critical and important, the agency served as a leader for its peers. Not only conducting direct interventions in the sectors of water and sanitation, livelihoods, shelter and protection, Oxfam set themselves apart by working collaboratively with peer organizations to advocate and lobby for an improved and better coordinated effort.
    • Social Assistance and Successful Advocacy in Georgia: A social protection case study

      Beesley, Jane (Oxfam GB, 2012-01-09)
      This case study provides information about Oxfam's social protection project that began in Georgia in 2005. Oxfam worked with the Association of Young Economists of Georgia (AYEG) to gather information about household poverty levels, and to advocate for change in the government’s social aid system. This system - income support (cash transfers) and free health care – was previously failing to reach some of the country’s poorest people. Through monitoring, research and advocacy, AYEG and Oxfam were able to influence social policy, and as a result, the poorest and most vulnerable people’s access to state benefits. Adjustments were made to the scoring methodology, as a consequence of this work, which resulted in an additional 34,000 families being included in the national social assistance system.
    • Emergency Shelter: Principles and practice

      Oxfam GB, 2012-04-15
      As part of our humanitarian mandate, Oxfam initiates and supports emergency shelter interventions for people affected by disasters and conflicts. Our experience shows that the rapid distribution of shelter NFIs and shelter support for host families can help people meet their immediate needs for dignity, privacy and protection from adverse weather. This Technical Briefing Note outlines the different approaches and key principles to be considered when considering emergency shelter programmes in humanitarian responses.
    • The post-Hyogo Framework: What’s next for disaster risk reduction?

      Benicchio, Romain (Oxfam International, 2012-06-03)
      The Post-Hyogo Framework, the successor to the Millennium Development Goals, and a new climate agreement are all expected in 2015. Thus, the next three years offer an outstanding opportunity to provide a crucial step change in disaster risk reduction (DRR) through the development of new international instruments. In this paper, Oxfam calls for equality and accountability to be enshrined as the primary drivers of DRR within the follow-up to the Hyogo Framework for Action, in order to provide an unambiguous direction for the negotiation of the agreement and its subsequent implementation at local, national, regional and international levels.
    • Our Economy: Towards a new prosperity

      Trebeck, Katherine; Stuart, Francis (Oxfam GB, 2012-06-20)
      For too many Scots, the existing economic model is failing. Far from improving their lives, it traps them in a cycle of economic hardship. Yet it is possible to overcome poverty, both in Scotland and across the UK - many of the solutions already exist, hidden within the very communities hit hardest by an economic model that worships at the altar of ‘economic growth’. The extraordinary work of our partners in Scotland has helped frame this report, where we hope to show how allocating resources in a more effective and sustainable way can deliver lasting change. In this paper we argue that the Scottish economy must pursue policies which deliver for the people, and policy-makers must play a central and driving role as underwriters of community solutions. Some of our recommendations include: - Build on the National Performance Framework and the Oxfam Humankind Index to create a better way of measuring our collective prosperity. - Create a Poverty Commissioner to ensure spending decisions are poverty proofed and to support communities to challenge Government policies and private sector actions that do not contribute to socio-economic equality. - Employers in the public and private sectors should pay a living wage. - Tax havens, offshore earnings and loopholes which allow avoidance, should be pursued and closed. Business support, corporate social responsibility awards and government plaudits should be contingent on companies meeting their tax obligations. - A Sustainable Livelihoods Approach (SLA) to social protection should be pursued. This would recognise complex barriers to work, gender differences and caring responsibilities as well as rewarding individuals’ range of skills and contributions (including activities that deliver social benefit but are currently insufficiently valued by the market). - Funding is required to make it easier for deprived communities to own assets for local benefit. As part of a socio-economic duty, council staff should support deprived communities prepare for ownership, with upfront grants enabling communities to assess the merits of an opportunity.
    • Effectiveness Review: Enhancing Access and Control to Sustainable Livelihood Assets, Philippines

      Hughes, Karl (Oxfam GB, 2012-10-08)
      The Enhancing Access and Control to Sustainable Livelihood Assets of the Manobo Tribe through Improved and Strengthened Self-governance of the Ancestral Territory programme is being implemented by Oxfam’s partner organisation, Paglilingkod Batas Pangkapatiran Foundation Incorporated (PBPF). The project aims is to improve household food security and empower women among a group of indigenous peoples that reside in a mountainous area that make up the Manobo-Mamanua Ancestral Domain. These full and summary reports document the findings of a quasi-experimental impact evaluation of this project carried out in March 2011.
    • Effectiveness Review: Routes to Solidarity, England

      Cambridge Policy Consultants (Oxfam GB, 2012-10-16)
      Oxfam's Routes to Solidarity project, launched in April 2009, seeks to empower Black and Minority Ethnic (BME) women and women’s groups by strengthening their organisational capacity and networking skills. This work is accompanied by efforts to ensure policy-makers are better informed and are putting in place policy solutions that benefit BME communities in England. This report documents the findings of a qualitative impact evaluation, carried out in March 2012, which used process tracing to assess the effectiveness of Routes to Solidarity's project in light of six targeted policy and practice changes identified by BME women themselves .