Uncovering bacterial and functional diversity in macroinvertebrate mitochondrial-metagenomic datasets by differential centrifugation
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AbstractPCR-free techniques such as meta-mitogenomics (MMG) can recover taxonomic composition of macroinvertebrate communities, but suffer from low efficiency, as >90% of sequencing data is mostly uninformative due to the great abundance of nuclear DNA that cannot be identified with current reference databases. Current MMG studies do not routinely check data for information on macroinvertebrate-associated bacteria and gene functions. However, this could greatly increase the efficiency of MMG studies by revealing yet overlooked diversity within ecosystems and making currently unused data available for ecological studies. By analysing six ‘mock’ communities, each containing three macroinvertebrate taxa, we tested whether this additional data on bacterial taxa and functional potential of communities can be extracted from MMG datasets. Further, we tested whether differential centrifugation, which is known to greatly increase efficiency of macroinvertebrate MMG studies by enriching for mitochondria, impacts on the inferred bacterial community composition. our results show that macroinvertebrate MMG datasets contain a high number of mostly endosymbiont bacterial taxa and associated gene functions. Centrifugation reduced both the absolute and relative abundance of highly abundant Gammaproteobacteria, thereby facilitating detection of rare taxa and functions. When analysing both taxa and gene functions, the number of features obtained from the MMG dataset increased 31-fold (‘enriched’) respectively 234-fold (‘not enriched’). We conclude that analysing MMG datasets for bacteria and gene functions greatly increases the amount of information available and facilitates the use of shotgun metagenomic techniques for future studies on biodiversity.
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