• Beyond Fragmentation: On International Law's Integrationist Forces

      Megiddo, Tamar
      What is a country to do when international law presents it with two conflicting yet binding norms? This question has been haunting international law scholars for the past two decades. It has arisen with particular fervor in the context of the proliferation of international legal regimes and, specifically, international tribunals since the 1990s.
    • Sexual Privacy

      Keats Citron, Danielle; Macht, Sophia
      Those who wish to control, expose, and damage the identities of individuals routinely do so by invading their privacy. People are secretly recorded in bedrooms and public bathrooms and “up their skirts.” Such images are used to coerce people into sharing nude photographs and filming sex acts under the threat of public disclosure. People’s nude images are posted online without permission. Machine-learning technology is used to create digitally manipulated “deep fake” sex videos that swap people’s faces into pornography. Each of these abuses is an invasion of sexual privacy—the behaviors, expectations, and choices that manage access to and information about the human body, sex, sexuality, gender, and intimate activities. Most often, women, nonwhites, sexual minorities, and minors shoulder the abuse. Sexual privacy, this Article contends, is a distinct privacy interest that warrants recognition and protection. It serves as a cornerstone for sexual autonomy and consent. It is foundational to human dignity and intimacy, and its denial results in the subordination of marginalized communities.
    • Empire States: The Coming of Dual Federalism

      Ablavsky, Gregory
      This Article offers an alternate account of federalism’s late eighteenth-century origins. In place of scholarly and doctrinal accounts that portray federalism as a repudiation of models of unitary sovereignty, it emphasizes the federalist ideology of dual sovereignty as a form of centralization—a shift from a world of diffuse sovereignty to one where authority was increasingly imagined as concentrated in the hands of only two legitimate sovereigns. In making this claim, the Article focuses on two sequential late eighteenth-century transformations. The first concerned sovereignty. Pre-Revolutionary ideas about sovereignty reflected early modern corporatist understandings of authority as well as imperial realities of uneven jurisdiction. But the Revolution elevated a new understanding of sovereignty in which power derived from the consent of a uniform people. This conception empowered state legislatures, which, throughout the 1780s, sought to use their status under new state constitutions as the sole repositories of popular authority to subordinate competing claims to authority made by corporations, local institutions, Native nations, and separatist movements.
    • What is a War Crime?

      Hathaway, Oona A.; Strauch, Paul K.; Walton, Beatrice A.; Weinberg, Zoe A. Y.
      What is a war crime? The question appears to have a simple answer: a war crime is a violation of the law of war. But do all violations of the law of war qualify as war crimes? And are all war crimes violations of the law of war? These questions are not new. In 1942, Hersch Lauterpacht, a leading international lawyer who assisted the prosecution of the Nazis for war crimes at the International Military Tribunal (IMT) in Nuremberg, wrote a memo in which he asked, “Is there a definition of war crimes?” More than seven decades later, the answer to his question remains unsettled.
    • The Voluntariness of Voluntary Consent: Consent Searches and the Psychology of Compliance

      Sommers, Roseanna; Bohns, Vanessa K.
      Consent-based searches are by far the most ubiquitous form of search undertaken by police. A key legal inquiry in these cases is whether consent was granted voluntarily. This Essay suggests that fact finders’ assessments of voluntariness are likely to be impaired by a systematic bias in social perception. Fact finders are likely to underappreciate the degree to which suspects feel pressure to comply with police officers’ requests to perform searches. In two preregistered laboratory studies, we approached a total of 209 participants (“Experiencers”) with a highly intrusive request: to unlock their password-protected smartphones and hand them over to an experimenter to search through while they waited in another room. A separate 194 participants (“Forecasters”) were brought into the lab and asked whether a reasonable person would agree to the same request if hypothetically approached by the same researcher. Both groups then reported how free they felt, or would feel, to refuse the request. Study 1 found that whereas most Forecasters believed a reasonable person would refuse the experimenter’s request, most Experiencers—100 out of 103 people—promptly unlocked their phones and handed them over. Moreover, Experiencers reported feeling significantly less free to refuse than did Forecasters contemplating the same situation hypothetically. Study 2 tested an intervention modeled after a commonly proposed reform of consent searches, in which the experimenter explicitly advises participants that they have the right to withhold consent. We found that this advisory did not significantly reduce compliance rates or make Experiencers feel more free to say no. At the same time, the gap between Experiencers and Forecasters remained significant. These findings suggest that decision makers judging the voluntariness of consent consistently underestimate the pressure to comply with intrusive requests. This is problematic because it indicates that a key justification for suspicionless consent searches—that they are voluntary—relies on an assessment that is subject to bias. The results thus provide support to critics who would like to see consent searches banned or curtailed, as they have been in several states. The results also suggest that a popular reform proposal—requiring police to advise citizens of their right to refuse consent—may have little effect. This corroborates previous observational studies that find negligible effects of Miranda warnings on confession rates among interrogees, and little change in rates of consent once police start notifying motorists of their right to refuse vehicle searches. We suggest that these warnings are ineffective because they fail to address the psychology of compliance. The reason people comply with police, we contend, is social, not informational. The social demands of police-citizen interactions persist even when people are informed of their rights. It is time to abandon the myth that notifying people of their rights makes them feel empowered to exercise those rights
    • Beyond Nudging: Debiasing Consumers Through Mixed Framing

      Godi, Matteo
      The consumer-protection literature can be divided into two camps: laissez-faire libertarianism and paternalism. Paternalism, as advanced by behavioral law and economics, calls for nudging consumers toward their utility-maximizing preference. Laissez-faire libertarianism, instead, calls for relying on rational-choice theory and the free market to allocate consumer goods. Although each camp presents the other as its diametric opponent, this Note shows that this dichotomy is overstated. Neither camp is incompatible with the other, nor infallible on its own. Through an original behavioral study, this Note reveals flaws in the fundamental assumptions of both camps: that no information can be conveyed neutrally (behavioral law and economics) and that consumer-oriented regulation diminishes autonomy (rational-choice theory). It does so by focusing on an understudied form of consumer-protection regulation: mixed framing. Legal scholars and regulators have largely ignored this phenomenon, yet it offers a more robust and actionable regulatory approach than the existing literature and one that is distinct from both paternalism and libertarianism. By examining the case study of food-safety regulations, this Note sketches the analytic and normative case for why regulators should embrace mixed framing. Using a process of debiasing through mixed framing, agencies can promulgate rules that minimize the risk of deceptive advertising tactics and maximize the provision of neutral and complete information—without running afoul of the First Amendment or falling into paternalistic restrictions on autonomy.
    • Foreign Affairs in Court: Lessons from CJEU Targeted Sanctions Jurisprudence

      Chachko, Elena
      There are many myths about the role of courts in foreign affairs and national security in Western democracies. Traditionally, courts and scholars in different jurisdictions have taken the view that executive action related to foreign affairs has unique attributes, making it ill-suited for review by unelected judges with limited institutional competence.1 This approach has relied on a combination of functional considerations and concerns about the democratic legitimacy of judicial interference with inherently political foreign and security policies.
    • The Reverse-Entanglement Principle: Why Religious Arbitration of Federal Rights Is Unconstitutional

      Chua-Rubenfeld, Sophia; Costa, Frank J. , Jr.
      Imagine you apply to be a cashier at a supermarket. At the beginning of the interview, you sign an employment application. You don’t get the job, and your interviewer’s remarks make you suspect it’s because you are Muslim. You sue in federal court under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The supermarket moves to dismiss the suit because your employment application included an agreement to arbitrate all Title VII disputes. The court dismisses your case and compels arbitration.
    • Interpreting the Outer Space Treaty's Non-Appropriation Principle: Customary International Law from 1967 to Today

      Pershing, Abigail D.
      SpaceX plans to have its first astronauts land on Mars by 2026. Blue Origin wants to take tourists to space by April 2019. The European Space Agency points to the possibilities of mining Helium-3 on the moon to provide cleaner energy here on Earth. Space tourism, exploration, and exploitation are very real possibilities in the near future—at least technologically. Legally, however, the way forward is less clear.
    • Copyright and the Holocaust

      Pessach, Guy; Shur-Ofry, Michal
      This article explores the interface between copyright law and the Holocaust. The Holocaust's duration and scope, its occurrence in the midst of the twentieth century with photography and film technologies already available, and its setting at the heart of Europe, yielded countless documents, diaries, notes, memoirs, musical works, photographs, films, letters, and additional artifacts. On the victims' part, many of those items-including secret archives comprised at various ghettos, music composed in concentration camps, and personal diaries-manifest an explicit act of real-time historical documentation for future generations. On the perpetrators' side, some materials were produced as a result of organized documentation and others-such as Joseph Goebbels' diaries or Hitler's Mein Kampf--comprise records of prominent figures in the Nazi regime. Numerous Holocaust-related materials are still subject to copyright protection. Yet, the impact of copyright law on the memory of the Holocaust remains largely unexplored.
    • How to Realize the Value of Stare Decisis: Options for following Precedent

      Varsava, Nina
      When courts deliberate on the implications of a precedent case in the adjudication of a new dispute, they generally frame the issue as if there are three paths through---{1) follow the precedent, (2) overrule, or (3) distinguish-without acknowledging that option number one contains its own garden of forking paths. My chief aim in this paper is to delineate and evaluate several options for following precedent. I show that we can respect the doctrine of precedent or stare decisis without committing to any one particular method. I argue further that we have good reason to refrain from endorsing any single method for following precedent, and I propose instead a variable approach-one that is sensitive to the contextual factors that make one method preferable to another.
    • Thirst: A Short History of Drinking Water

      Salzman, James
      Nestled in the Andes, the Bolivian city of Cochabamba lies in a fertile valley astride the banks of the Rocha River. Bolivia is the poorest country in South America, with two-thirds of its population below the poverty line. As in many developing countries, over forty percent of Cochabamba's 800,000 residents lack access to a water supply network. And even those who do have pipes cannot depend on reliable service. The poor often live in squatter settlements on the outskirts of town, relying for their drinking and domestic water supplies on private vendors. In a cruel irony, the poorest end up paying much more for their water than wealthier citizens connected to the city's water mains. As part of a nationwide project to improve provision of municipal services, the government of Bolivia launched a major privatization reform effort in the late 1990s. Prompted by financial institutions such as the International Monetary Fund and World Bank, the Bolivian government actively sought out private investor management for Cochabamba's water and sewage services. Treating drinking water as a priced good under private management, it was widely argued, would improve the water supply system infrastructure and delivery by injecting much-needed capital, greater efficiencies, and increased attention to customer needs. A forty-year concession for water and wastewater services in Cochabamba was granted to an international private consortium headed by Bechtel and known as Aguas del Tunari. In the national law passed to facilitate this transaction, water was declared the property of the state, available for licensing to private companies for distribution.
    • The Rose Theorem?

      Heller, Michael
      Law resists theorems. We have hypotheses, typologies, heuristics, and conundrums. But, until now, only one plausible theorem - and that we borrowed from economics. Could there be a second, the Rose Theorem? Any theorem must generalize, be falsifiable, and have predictive power. Law's theorems, however, seem to require three additional qualities: they emerge from tales of ordinary stuff; are named for, not by, their creators; and have no single authoritative form. For example, Ronald Coase wrote of ranchers and farmers. He has always shied away from the Theorem project. When later scholars formalized his parable, they created multiple and inconsistent versions. Likewise, Carol Rose writes rich narratives of maypoles and foxes, rivers and roman roads. She offers a theory of human motivation and predictions about our behavior. And we may ask, though she might not, whether the rich alluvial mud of her scholarship crystallizes into a Rose Theorem.
    • The Elasticity of Contract

      Ertman, Martha M.
      It is not surprising that Carol Rose began this conference reflecting that she has spent her career looking at the importance of the language we use to explore property, since she is famous for explicating complexity through wonderfully simple, disarming language. Stuart Banner's observation that Professor Rose is one of the few people who speak two languages fluently and are taken as a native in both cultures nicely captures the way her work also bridges communitarianism and legal economic discourse.
    • The Just and the Wild

      Underkuffler, Laura S.
      The question of the extent to which previously recognized property rights should continue to be protected has undoubtedly bedeviled every legal system that has attempted to address it. On the one hand, the legal idea of property reflects a broad societal commitment to the continued honoring of historically based entitlements on which individuals depend. On the other hand, every complex society is acutely aware of the inadequacy of the simple idea of the legal protection of existing rights as a response to human poverty, environmental degradation, and other critical problems. This issue of who has what - or who can count on what - is at the heart of the American takings problem. Our feelings and fears about poverty, wealth, preservation, and change fuel legal and political battles over the question of the taking of property by government. Property is seen as a bulwark which protects individual wealth, liberty, and autonomy. Whether government can impair this bulwark - without recognizing that impairment-implicates, on the deepest levels, our fundamental feelings of security. Because of the complexities and extraordinarily high stakes in this field, it presents particular fascinations and minefields for scholars. It is difficult to give useful advice about takings law without oversimplifying the issues or short changing our own, conflicting emotions. In its efforts in this task, the work of Professor Carol Rose is without peer. It is (at the same time) intellectually profound, meticulously balanced, practically useful, and boldly and provocatively passionate.
    • Between Charity, Welfare, and Warfare: A Disability Legal Studies Analysis of Privilege and Neglect in Israeli Disability Policy

      More, Sagit
      Throughout the last century, the modem welfare state has been widely considered a major source of rescue and relief for people with disabilities. By providing mechanisms of cure and care, so the common view goes, the welfare state has improved the social conditions of disabled people, rescuing them from a life of starvation and severe destitution. In this view, welfare provides a refuge, while the real responsibility for the persistent poverty of disabled people lies primarily with the structure of the market economy, with the existence of negative social attitudes, and with disability's "objective" and inherent limitations. In this Article, I challenge this view, arguing that although welfare has indeed provided some relief to people with disabilities, welfare laws and policies have also had a significant role in developing, furthering, and reinforcing the power hierarchies to which people with disabilities are subjected. Through an investigation of Israeli disability policy, I show how hierarchies of welfare benefits reflect national values and collective imageries but at the same time reinforce and re-constitute those values and modes of imagination. Although the particularities and contexts of these hierarchies differ from one country to another, the result, I contend, is the same: those at the top, usually disabled veterans and disabled workers, enjoy better compensation or social insurance schemes, but in fact suffer from similar patterns of ableism and power as other disabled persons, and these patterns eventually render them equally inferior to and of a lesser value than the non-disabled. This Article uses a critical perspective that I term Disability Legal Studies (DLS) in order to emphasize its commitment to the field of critical legal theory and its close association with disability studies. Disability studies, a relatively new academic field, investigates issues such as the social construction of disability, ableism and the power structure that supports and enhances the privileged status and conditions of non-disabled persons in relation to disabled persons, the genealogy of social categories such as normalcy, and the politics of bodily variations.2 The basic approach that all disability studies scholars share is that disability is not an inherent, immutable trait located in the disabled person, but a result of socio-cultural dynamics that occur in interactions between society and people with disabilities. Although disability studies' critique is not altogether new to some legal scholars, it has not yet gained adequate recognition in legal discourse. I maintain that the time has come to identify, introduce, and label the field of DLS, bring it to light, attend to its premises, and incorporate its lessons into legal theory and practice. I further suggest that attending to DLS would bring a shift in writing on disability and the law from a focus on doctrinal analysis or policy advocacy to a research regarding the constitutive role of law in the production of disability.
    • Toward a Theory of a Right to Health: Capability and Incompletely Theorized Agreements

      Ruger, Jennifer Prah
      One would be hard pressed to find a more controversial or nebulous human right than the "right to health"-a right that stems primarily, although not exclusively, from Article 12 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) and requires governments to recognize "the right of everyone to the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health." While activists, nongovernmental organizations, and scholars have made significant progress in promoting a human rights approach to health and the field of health and human rights more generally, the question of a philosophical and conceptual foundation-a theory-for the right to health has fallen through the cracks that emerge from an interdisciplinary intersection of medical ethics, international relations, international human rights law, health policy, health law, and public health law. International human rights law scholars working in public health and health policy have typically focused on government's binding legal obligations to promote and protect both public health and human rights. They have drawn on human rights to address public health issues, especially the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Although scholars in this field have, in the words of one academic, "developed a sophisticated understanding of civil and political rights," they "have failed systematically to examine the meaning and enforcement of social and economic rights." And while General Comment No. 14, issued by the UN Committee on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights (CESCR), provides the most reliable report on the right to health, it too, by necessity and purpose, lacks a systematic philosophical grounding for the right to health. The few international relations scholars and practitioners who do focus on health issues have provided primarily three dominant frameworks for international health cooperation: national and security interests; domestic and global economic development; and international human rights. Human rights approaches have filled a "moral gap" in the international global health discourse left primarily by economic and geo-political governance frameworks for international health issues. But the human rights strategy has been only moderately effective, for example in efforts to control and mitigate the HIV/AIDS epidemic and to implement the constitution of the World Health Organization (WHO). Furthermore, international relations as an academic discipline has not focused on providing a theory-based in moral and political philosophy - of a right to health.
    • Introduction: Property and Language, or, the Ghost of the Fifth Panel

      Rose, Carol M.
      It is gratifying, hugely flattering, and at the same time somewhat embarrassing to have to open a conference and then a symposium issue on one's own academic work. No doubt understanding this embarrassment, my colleague and good friend Ian Ayres suggested a way out: since the conference was named "The Properties of Carol Rose," I should take the occasion to talk about the various residences I have owned. A great idea, and I did indeed think about it, because as Ian knows, I have had good luck in that dimension, with more than my share of weird and interesting addresses. But as intriguing as Ian's idea would have been, there was really another topic altogether that I thought I should address at the opening of the conference and now this symposium issue. That topic is the Missing Fifth Panel, or as I will sometimes call it in this Introduction, the Ghost Panel.
    • First Amendment Bargains

      Ayres, Ian Ayres
      Before starting formally, let me pause to say that it is quite an honor to participate in this celebration. When I think of the properties of Carol Rose, I think first of her laugh. It is a wonderfully exuberant cackle which, when in full bloom, often causes her head to tilt slightly back. She has a way of laughing after delivering a tangy barb that somehow diffuses the sting. I know it's not possible, but sometimes I hear her laugh when I'm reading her footnotes. This laugh is a great pedagogical gift. When Carol was teaching me property in, I believe, the fall of 1985, she would occasionally cold-call students in the very large class that filled Room 127. One day, Carol looked down at her class roster and called on my classmate Lisa Allred for the first time. Lisa was not prepared, or at least was not prepared to speak, and thought she would try to hide out in the masses and simply not respond, with the hope that Carol would think she wasn't in class that day. But Carol turned and looked at Lisa and said "Isn't that yoooouuu?" There was a scared silence in the class. And then Carol laughed. It was not a mean laugh, it was so full of sincere joy that it was very hard not to be pulled along. I've been lucky to hear this same laugh many times over the yearsoften just after Carol has skewered a speaker with some particularly deflating retort. "Socrates, Shmocrates," she said in response to Robert Frank's Winner-Take-All theory. As Carol moves west, I'm going to miss the chance to hear her laugh.